Wildfires around the world: The photos that explain the flames - best barbecue charcoal uk
The fire has swept through the coastal towns east of Athens, the Greek capital.Dozens of people.Including families with childrenThey were dead when they tried to escape the flames.But Sweden's fires are also raging, even north of the Arctic Circle, and in recent months have caused great damage in countries such as Portugal, Britain and the United States.So what is causing these hell and how do we deal with them?Fire can occur naturally in woodlands or bushes, lit by heat from the sun or lightning strikes.However, the vast majority of wildfireUp to 90% people worldwideAccording to experts, it was initiated by human beings.The reason may be barbecue charcoal, discarded cigarettes, or even arson.The flame can burn easily with fuel and oxygen.Greece is unusually dry this winter and spring, with grass and bushes particularly flammable, said Thomas Smith, assistant professor of environmental geography at the London School of Economics and Political Sciences (LSE.In addition to the lack of rainfall, the wind also determines the degree of destruction of the fire according to the intensity and direction of the fire."The Burning afterfires can spread very far, and if they are large enough, they can trigger new fires that could spread for several kilometers," Smith said .".Surface fires -For example, burning on the forest floorIt is slower to spread and easier to control.In fact, some ground fires may be good, says cat helijne Stoof, a wildlife land fire expert based in the Netherlands."It helps plant regeneration," she added ."."The problem is when the flame climbs up the low branches and reaches the top of the tree.When you can't stop itThomas Smith explained: "The most dangerous part of the fire is called the head fire.It is pushed forward by the wind because it has a long flame length, so it is difficult to fight directly.But it's not just wood and grass that quickly become a wildfire fuel.Nearby houses and vehicles burn because they contain materials such as plastic and rubber.In Greece, cars on roads caught fire in front of green trees around them because they were more flammable.In order to do this, they do not need to be directly licked by flames."It comes down to the energy released by the flame," Smith said ."."The car is probably dozens of meters away and is close enough to the ignition point."Sadly, people are often killed by wildfire when trying to escape.According to Alexander Held, a forest risk management expert, many victims in Greece are trapped in traffic jams as people try to escape as quickly as possible.But he said it could be avoided if there were better evacuation plans.He added that quality fuel such as dry shrubs should be removed from roadside and house to prevent the flame from approaching."This is a bomb waiting to explode."High temperatures and flames are the most immediate dangers people face in wild fires.However, smoking can also be harmful if you have existing diseases such as asthma or lung disease, or if you are exposed to it for a few weeks or months.Although the smoke generated by burning vegetation is toxic, it usually disappears quickly.Smoke from burning plastic or asbestos at home is more dangerous.According to experts, with climate change, different land use over the centuries has led to more wildfires in some parts of the world."In the past, there were small farmland in southern Europe, and people would manage the land," said Cathelijne Stoof ."."But in the 20 th century, when people moved away, the land became overgrown.So, when you have fire, it will spread more easily."In the fire near Saddleworth Moor in the northwest of England, it was not just vegetation that caught fire."The fire did get into the soil," Dr. Thomas Smith said .".The moor is made up of peat soil, which is carbon.He explained that it is very rich and requires little oxygen to burn."The fire came out of the ground and disappeared....It makes it harder to put it out."Firefighters have a range of techniques to try to solve it by depriving the flame of oxygen or fuel.They need to have the right training to know which one works best.In the recent British forest fire, they put out fires with beating machines and water pipes.Putting fertilizer-containing water and flame retardant from aircraft and helicopters may also slow the spread of flames.Experts say one of the most effective ways to deal with wildfires is to build fire exits by removing vegetation.But Alexander argues that it is "dirty and hard work" rather than an option that is always popular in public opinion."You can send a lot of helicopters and planes, but you won't put it out without the staff on the ground," he insisted .".Cathelijne Stoof agrees on the importance of creating a fire facility: in some places, firefighters will create controlled fires to draw energy from the fires they are fighting.Fire prevention and land management should be "sexier" than they are now, she said ".The properly trained team can understand fire behavior and choose the best way to deal with it, she said.But the behavior of fire is also unpredictable."It's dangerous.So I respect very much those who do everything they can to save others.